Dennis Cassinelli: The remarkable story of Charlie Parkhurst

During the early days of the Comstock Lode, before the railroads were built, the preferred method of transportation for passengers and small freight was by stagecoach. These sturdy coaches, drawn by teams of four or six horses, followed the rough and treacherous mountain roads taking people, baggage, mail, gold and newspapers to every community in western Nevada and eastern California.

Several stage lines met the demand for the stage business, including the Pioneer Stage Company, Wells Fargo, and the California Stage Company. Experienced and hardened stage drivers were required to safely navigate the sharp curves, poor roads, winter snow and spring mud commonly encountered along these trails. Some of the best drivers included Hank Monk, Charlie Parkhurst and George Monroe. Passengers would sometimes schedule their trips to be driven by one of these drivers.

Stagecoach companies were big business during the Comstock’s productive years. The Pioneer Stage route followed the old trail from Placerville, over the Sierra past South Lake Tahoe, to Genoa. The company had 12 Concord Coaches with six horses each. On average, more than 100 passengers used the line daily to reach Virginia City from California.

Always on the mind of drivers and passengers was the possibility a stage could be held up by highwaymen or road agents. The stages routinely carried considerable quantities of gold, silver and other valuables across the Sierra Nevada mountains and many of the passengers usually carried considerable wealth on their persons. To protect and deter criminal activity, the stage drivers were usually heavily armed and guards accompanied shipments of gold and silver.

These things being said, I will tell a few things about the interesting stage driver known as Charlie Parkhurst. Born in 1817 in New Hampshire, Charlie spent his early years working with horses in stables and learning to become a stagecoach driver. When shoeing a horse one day, Charlie was badly injured when the horse kicked him in the face, causing him to lose the sight of one eye. From that time on, he wore a patch over the eye and often was called One Eyed Charlie. He kept pretty much to himself and traveled from place to place for several years learning his trade. Wherever he went, Charlie seemed to move on before anyone got to know him well. It was as if he had a secret he was trying to keep from everyone.

Charley did indeed have a secret he believed might prevent him from becoming the highly respected stagecoach driver he wanted to be. What he failed to tell employers wherever he worked was he was not a man at all, but a woman who loved driving the stage so much, she disguised herself as a man. The clever disguise worked well, for few people knew the secret until the day she died. Her disfigured face helped disguise her appearance.

Charlie Parkhurst arrived in San Francisco in 1850, and started driving for stage lines throughout the California gold rush country. She worked for the Pioneer Line until it was taken over by Wells Fargo in 1866. She learned to drink, chew tobacco, smoke cigars, utter profanity and fit in with the other stage drivers despite her small stature and the lady-like hands she kept covered with her driving gloves. For the next 15 years she earned the reputation as one of the finest stagecoach drivers in the West.

Once when a notorious road agent named Sugarfoot attempted to rob Charlie’s stage, she cracked her whip defiantly and the horses bolted away. She began firing her six shooter at the gang and raced away without loss or injury. Later, Sugarfoot was found dead at the scene with a fatal bullet wound in his stomach. In appreciation of her bravery, Wells Fargo gave Parkhurst a solid gold watch and chain. Another time, as Charley braked the stagecoach down Carson Pass, the lead horses stumbled off the road. The jolt threw Charley from the coach and despite being dragged, she held the reins to bring the coach to a safe stop.

In the late 1860s, Charlie Parkhurst retired after years of hard work and a life of deception and secrecy. When Ulysses S. Grant ran for president in 1868, Charlie became the first woman in California registered to vote in a presidential election. Charlie spent her final years doing odd jobs, farming, raising some cattle and hauling freight for neighbors.

Charlie Parkhurst died in December, 1879, from throat cancer and rheumatism. When neighbors came to her cabin to lay the body out for burial, they discovered the renowned stagecoach driver was actually a woman. Only later did they learn she had been born Charlene Parkhurst and was able to hide her femininity with loose fitting men’s clothes and a patch over one eye where the horse had kicked her years before. She was laid to rest in Watsonville.

This article is by Dayton Author and Historian, Dennis Cassinelli, who can be contacted at or on his blog at All Dennis’ books sold through this publication will be at a 50 percent discount to reduce inventory and Dennis will pay the postage.


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